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COVID-19 Vaccines: What are the different type of vaccines?


As vaccines are starting its rollout, coronavirus is still something the whole world needs to reckon with, and we’re still unsure when the virus will be a hundred percent gone. It’s still in the forefront of the news and media, haunting the minds of everyone. Although such a bizarre scenario is going on, there is good news emerging. The arrival of vaccines has brought peace and hope to mankind. But the carelessness and negativity of people regarding vaccines hampers the eradication of coronavirus. This article intends to cover a detailed explanation regarding each type of vaccine as well as a short guide about what you should do after taking the vaccine. 

Types of Vaccines available

There are a total of 4 types of Vaccines in market which have proven effective against Covid-19:

Whole Virus Vaccine:

About - This vaccine is based on the same technique used by other popular vaccines such as - Hepatitis A, polio and rabies. It includes an inactive or weakened virus which triggers the immune system and develops memory based antibodies.


Vaccines - Sinopharm, Sinovac (dosage - 2, intramuscular)

Benefits - Can be used for old-age people or individuals with compromised immune systems/bad medical history. Also, as the technique behind the working of vaccines is pretty old, they cannot infect cells and replicate, just can trigger an immune response.

RNA or mRNA Vaccines:

About - This can be stated as the new generation vaccine. The type of technology used to make this has been studied for a long time but was never implemented with 100% success rate. Some mRNA vaccines have been examined in the past for a number of diseases such as cytomegalovirus, influenza, rabies and Zika virus, but the vaccine developed for coronavirus is the one with complete success. Instead of injecting the pathogen directly into the body, mRNA molecules are injected, which then commands the cells to produce antigens, specifically the spike shaped protein of Covid-19 which then triggers the body's immune system in response from the body's lymphocytes. 


Vaccines - Pfizer-BioNTech, Moderna (dosage - 2 doses, intramuscular)

Benefits - As there is no live virus present inside the body, the disease won’t be triggered. Apart from that, the vaccine is pretty easy to manufacture.


Non Replicating Viral Vector:

About - This vaccine contains a genetically modified version of the covid-19, This vaccine has the same technology as the vaccines of Ebola Virus. “Vector” is the spike protein of the coronavirus. The vaccine, once injected, starts to infect the cells, then they are instructed to produce a large amount of antigens which triggers the immune system.

Vaccines - Oxford-AstraZeneca, Sputnik V (dosage - 2 doses, intramuscular)

Benefits - It is based on another well researched technology which already outputs a good amount of progress. It can trigger the immune system effectively and in a strong way as it also includes the involvement of B cells and T cells.

Protein SUBUNIT:

About - This vaccine instead of delivering a full pathogen, releases “purified-pieces” of the coronavirus. This also triggers the immune system but it detects it as a low threat and reduces the side effects caused due to heavy triggering. It is based on the same technology as Hepatitis B, meningococcal disease, pneumococcal disease and shingles vaccines.

Vaccines - Novavax (dosage - 2 doses, intramuscular)

Benefits - This vaccine is effective on people whose immune system was already compromised.


Things you should do after taking vaccine

Most people take themselves and their health very lightly after taking the vaccine. While the body adjusts to the vaccine and develops immunity, it's necessary that you reserve your energy, take complete rest, and boost your immunity by eating healthy.

Take care of yourself. 

According to Unicef:

If you experience side effects, certain side effects may hinder you from going about your daily activities for a few days.

You may develop fevers, redness, muscle pain and swelling, a tingling sensation or pain at the site of injection for a couple of days. 

Don’t neglect to drink plenty of water and fluids.

You may take paracetamol to ease symptoms. If you do decide to take paracetamol, make sure to follow the correct dosage provided to you.

Things you shouldn’t do after taking vaccine

Don’t go out in public unless it's of utmost importance. These are some tough times but the best practice is to remain calm. Eating noodles, and all other junk food is also not advised. Your body needs a proper diet and light food which is easy to digest, and certainly food with carbs doesn’t come under that category. If you need more information regarding vaccines and what to do or not to do, it's advised to consult your doctor.

NOTE: All information provided here was up to date when it was written and proper research was done prior to the time. As time progresses new vaccines and ways may be introduced.

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